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  • June 17, 2024
  • Last Update May 7, 2023 10:40 am
  • Hannover


Some time spent in planning pays off. Not only will the presentation be better prepared, the look process will increase your confidence and be reflected in an exceedingly more convincing presentation performance.

Define the Parameters

Knowing the parameters beforehand will limit uncertainties and surprises and cause you to better prepared to deliver a targeted, informative, and interesting presentation. the foremost important parameters are topic and theme, time, program, preservation, audience, place, and questions.

Some of these parameters will be determined before the presentation. quite likely one or two of the later ones will change slightly by the day of the presentation. it’s important shortly before the presentation to redefine the parameters to form sure that none of the changes will dramatically affect your presentation.

Topic and Theme. what is going to you be talking about? Will you be providing a general overview of this subject or highlights of recent activities?

Where does one want to travel in your presentation of this material?

Time. what proportion time does one should make your presentation? it’s a simple question to ask, but only too often a presenter finds himself or herself variety on the agenda or a reputation on the program. There may be a general sense that the talk will take 10 minutes or an hour, but no specifics are provided.

Program. Will there be other speakers presenting? How will the data in your presentation compare or contrast with the topics covered by other speakers? what’s the order of the presentations? Are you expected to supply an exciting introduction to the program or a comprehensive summary?

Preservation. within the age of digital camcorders and cable television, presentations are often recorded or televised for future viewing or public consumption. If you’re thinking that this might be the case together with your presentation, ask. If your presentation is being taped, you must arouse a copy. this may be a valuable resource for reviewing your presentation and your presentation style. it’ll function a great tool if you’re asked to administer an identical presentation at a later date.

Audience. To whom will you be presenting? Giving an interview about trees to a gaggle of executives within the lumber industry would be significantly different from giving the identical sit down with the members of an environmental group. Research your audience beforehand. what’s their background and the way knowledgeable are they about your subject matter?

What are they expecting from the presentation and the way are you able to add value to their experience? Are they expecting to be told, amused, or challenged? what percentage individuals are expected to attend your presentation? If you’re presenting to a bunch or a company, especially one with which you’re unfamiliar, take some moments to find out more about it. Simple and useful information can often be found on the organization’s computer or in one among its recent newsletters.

What issues are most vital to the members? If the group often hosts presenters, hunt for references to past presenters. What did these presenters speak about, and the way were they received?

Place. Where is that the presentation visiting take place? How are the acoustics of the space? What audio-video resources are available at this location? Will you be able to connect your laptop to the audio-video system at this location or will you wish to load your program onto a computer already at the site? Will there be someone there to help you with audio-video equipment? Will there be a stage, podium, microphone, table, chairs? Will the audience be seated facing you, or will they be seated around dinner tables? (If possible attempt to avoid big gaps between you and therefore the audience. Make the setting as intimate as possible.)

If you’re employing a screen for your presentation, where will this screen be located? (Try to induce the screen go off to the side instead of in the center of the stage or on a back wall. this can allow you to reference it more easily and move round the stage more comfortably.)

Question-and-Answer Component. Will there be questions at the end of the presentation? Will there be a moderator to require questions or will you be expected to handle them yourself? If there are several presenters, will questions be taken at the tip of your presentation or on balance the presenters have spoken?


Knowing your topic and theme is clearly important in delivering an effective presentation. Knowing why you’re presenting, however, is equally important. After taking the time to investigate the audience and assess their needs, decide how these needs can best be met. Four common purposes for a presentation include persuasion, instruction, inspiration, and entertainment. Persuasion could be a method for bringing an audience around to your point of view. Instruction is employed to share basic information about your topic. Inspiration is effective when used during a change of process, procedure, or direction. Entertainment lightens the mood. Often these purposes are accustomed varying degrees in a presentation. The important point is that in preparing for your presentation you take an instant to consider what purpose is that the most important and effective for your presentation and your audience. To help determine the aim of your presentation, ask yourself what you want people within the audience to try and do as a results of having heard your presentation. What concepts does one want your audience to depart with?

Preparing Your Presentation

As mentioned earlier, for a good presentation you’ll be able to expect to spend 30 to hr of preparation time for every minute of delivery.

This means that to deliver a one-hour presentation, one can expect 30 to 60 hours of preparation. this is often realistic given the research, preparation, and practice that has got to get into developing effective presentation materials.

In the current business environment it’s often difficult to seek out time to concentrate on anyone particular project. Interruptions are common, and it always takes a bit beyond regular time to mentally reengage and target what you were previously doing. If you wish to provide an engrossing presentation you need to dedicate your full attention to your presentation.

Schedule a meeting with yourself well previous your presentation date to create sure that point are available. Forward your calls, turn off your mobile phone and pager, resist the urge to test your e-mail,

and put a don’t Disturb check in your door. Sometimes the simplest approach is to seek out a location to figure on your presentation outside of your normal office environment.

Materials. After you have got taken time to define the parameters and ask some important questions about the subject and purpose, it is time to begin assembling materials for your presentation. This process involves several steps including collection, organization, writing a top level view and rough draft, editing then reviewing the draft.

  1. Collection. garner information that you just think most closely fits your topic while addressing the aim of your presentation.

What information does one wear hand? Is there any information that is out of date or must be supplemented with additional materials? Is there anyone who could also be able to provide you with further useful information?

  1. Organization. bear the materials you have got collected and sort them into groups supported themes and topics.
  2. Outline and rough draft. Develop a rough outline of your presentation. What topics and themes are appropriate for the beginning, middle, and end of your presentation? Expand on your outline to develop a rough draft of your presentation.

Remember, this can be a rough draft. try and determine what are going to be the key points of your presentation. Write several sentences addressing each of the themes and topics contained in your outline. try and identify a minimum of five key points. More than seven key points is a sign that you simply is also trying to convey an excessive amount of information in your presentation. Does starting with these key points, in light of your overall theme and purpose, succinctly tell your audience what you’re going to say? Taken together do they successfully summarize your presentation?

  1. Editing. for several novice presenters, this a part of the presentation process receives the smallest amount attention. Given time and energy constraints, one may commit to wing it with a rough draft in hand. For most, however, taking the time to edit the rough draft are well definitely worth the time and energy. It makes the difference between a good presentation and a superb one. Editing the rough draft is best begun by letting a touch of your time to pass between the writing and also the editing. this permits for a fresh approach. within the editing process give some thought to how the presentation can move from the written to the vocable. This can be done by simplifying and solidifying the text. Cut unnecessary ideas and words, remove or clarify any jargon, and shorten sentences. additionally, support your ideas with anecdotes and examples. At the tip of this process you must have a written copy of what you’d wish to say in your presentation and how you’d wish to say it.
  2. Review. Take the time to thoroughly review your edited draft. Read though it aloud several times. If possible do that in front of friends or colleagues. Ask them for criticism and feedback on delivery, content, and style. is that the length appropriate for the time allotted? Are the ideas conveyed clearly? Are the overall theme and purpose maintained?

Preparing for Delivery

Once the fabric has been pulled into a spoken format that stays true to the theme and purpose of the presentation, it’s time to refine the delivery process. this could be done through the identification of key

words and phrases, the choice of appropriate presentation aids, rehearsal, and preparing for questions.

Keys to a good Delivery. one amongst the foremost important keys to a successful presentation is eye contact. With a written draft in hand, some presenters will keep their eyes glued to the printed page and neglect to form eye contact with their audience. Unless you’re delivering a awfully formal address or talking to the press, sticking to the exact words of the draft are often unnecessary and stifling. For a more spontaneous and original approach, which involves more eye contact with the audience, it’s useful to spot key words and phrases within the draft. These prompts are the premise of your draft or your visual aids. Stepping off from the script, rehearse your presentation using these prompts. What do these key words and phrases convey? How do they fit into the presentation as a whole? Transfer these prompts to index cards and practice giving your presentation using these cards. Work toward linking these prompts together in your mind and using fewer and fewer of the cards. Continue practicing this process.

Presentation Aids. while the rough draft developed from the materials you collected is that the main structure of your presentation, there are a spread of aids that may be wont to support your topic, theme, and purpose. These include computer-generated graphics, multimedia, and overhead transparencies. there’s nothing more disconcerting, however, than a presentation with poor presentation aids.

Instead of supporting your presentation, they detract from it by drawing the audience’s attention removed from what you’re saying. A Microsoft PowerPoint slide with a solid paragraph of text will accomplish one among two things: it’ll either put the audience immediately to sleep or pull all eyes to the screen for the subsequent five minutes as people carefully try to comprehend the meaning of the words before them. Use presentation aids to support the presentation and encourage conversation between the audience and also the presenter. ensure to possess a printed copy of every of your visual presentation aids just in case there are problems with technology and you would like to talk over with a very important number or point.

Regardless of which aids you utilize in your presentation, it is important that each one aids meet the subsequent criteria:

✔ Fit with the script you have got developed from your rough draft. They should either summarize or add value to what you’re saying at a specific point in your presentation.

✔ Flow with the script. Do the aids fit smoothly along with the topic, theme, and purpose as they develop in your script?

✔ Are they appropriate for the scale and sort of audience and therefore the venue where the presentation is taking place? Does an off-the-cuff audience of 5 need a multimedia presentation?

✔ Look clear, readable, and consistent from all places within the room where the presentation is to require place.

✔ Display content simply and effectively. Cluttered and complicated slides take attention far from your presentation.

✔ Use appropriate graphics like drawings, charts, and graphics to support a specific point or issue.

Remember that the most structure of the presentation is that the script, not the presentation aids. The simpler, clearer, and more precise you can make your presentation aids, the more practical they’ll be in supporting your topic, theme, and purpose. If you have got questions about the standard and clarity of any presentations aids, rehearse your presentation for a trusted colleague, friend, or loved one and ask for constructive feedback and criticism.

What’s the purpose of PowerPoint? Advances in technology have increased the share of data we receive visually. This has been very true since Microsoft brought PowerPoint into our lives and dramatically changed the character of presentations. Microsoft released PowerPoint in 1987 and since then over 400 million copies have been installed on computers worldwide. Estimates are that it’s utilized in approximately 30 million presentations every day. Some people are now surprised if they attend a presentation and PowerPoint isn’t a part of the program. Many of us, however, expect to a PowerPoint presentation with all the joy of a passageway. A dark room, a blue background with white lettering, and that we struggle to remain awake and wonder what all that information was that was flashed abreast of the screen only minutes ago. PowerPoint isn’t a required element of a presentation, but it are often a useful gizmo. Remember, it’s not the slides themselves that are the matter such a lot because it is that the content of the slides and the way well the presenter uses them.

One of the largest problems with PowerPoint is that although some organizations encourage its use there’s rarely any emphasis on teaching people a way to use it effectively. additionally, some companies and organizations require the employment of a selected template or insist that the organization’s logo be present on each slide. This leads to poorly designed and ineffective presentation aids that detract from a presenter’s ability to determine a private relationship with the audience.

Some of these problems are often restrained, while others must be worked around. One way to counter these problems is to specialise in PowerPoint basics rather than on text animation, clip art, video clips, and colorful backgrounds. The more complex a presentation, the more likely it’ll upstage the presenter. to stay slides visually simple, use a limit of six words to 1 line and five lines to a slide. Also use no quite three colors per slide.

PowerPoint should be wont to provide a map of what you’re talking about and to assist provide context for the remainder of your presentation.

Don’t use PowerPoint as a surrogate for your speech. PowerPoint is not a teleprompter. In fact, putting less material on a slide can provide a unique opportunity for discussion, but confirm that you simply know the fabric you’re presenting so on fill within the details. When working with the program confirm that you simply know the technology well: What cable goes where? How does one advance a slide? These questions should be answered before you enter the area. Use the “Notes” view of PowerPoint to put in writing out what you’d prefer to say in your presentation. this can function a valuable register ensuring that what’s shown on the slide directly relates to what you’re saying. In addition, it preserves a more detailed copy of your presentation to share with others or to review at a later date. Don’t spend an excessive amount of time on PowerPoint, though, especially if you’re not an expert with the program; time will be better spent working with the core materials of your presentation and rehearsing your delivery. Minimize the quantity of slides you employ during a presentation. the less slides the higher. If there is additional material that must be shared, use handouts.

Learn to use the “B” key, which can black out the screen, giving your audience an opportunity to shift their focus far from the screen and back to the most important a part of the presentation: you.

If you’re comfortable with PowerPoint and feel that your presentation of the fundamentals is sufficiently covered, take a step or two aloof from the bullet point format presented within the PowerPoint templates. Alternatives do exist, and these can add meaning and depth to your presentation. Some samples of these are the employment of PowerPoint’s text boxes, diagramming tools, and AutoShapes. If you would like to use more graphics in your presentation, PowerPoint makes it easy to feature images—a chart, table, or diagram. give some thought to symbols and analogies that may be accustomed emphasize your point.

Rehearsal. like the method of editing the rough draft mentioned before, rehearsal is another a part of the presentation process that is often disregarded. With a script, some prompts, and a few clever presentation aids, some presenters are able to go. Once again, however, taking the time to rehearse the presentation will prove worthwhile in the future. it’ll handle rough patches, reveal areas that may need further attention, and cause you to more well-off about delivering the presentation. Rehearsing ahead of others may be particularly beneficial and might state certain things which will have been overlooked earlier, like an absence of eye contact, forgetting to smile, putting your hands in your pockets, or turning your back to the audience. If you wish to create sure you’re mindful of those issues during your presentation, write them down on an index card and place the card before of you during your presentation.

During the rehearsal process take a flash to reflect on the fashion and content of your delivery. Does your presentation stay focused and avoid wandering off on tangents? Does it deliver a transparent message to your audience? Don’t be afraid to fine-tune your presentation so as to address a number of these issues. this can help maintain the main target and attention of your audience.

Preparing for Questions. attempt to anticipate a number of the questions your audience might ask. How can these questions be answered referencing your presentation or your visual aids? Are there any questions that might require a small amount more research on your part?

The moment

After defining the parameters, developing a script, and preparing the delivery, the time will finally come to provide the presentation. There are several important things to think about within the hours before this moment arrives. to hide any last-minute problems, you must redefine the parameters, check yourself, double-check your materials, and arrive early.

Revisit the Presentation Parameters. As mentioned earlier, some of the parameters will be determined before the presentation; others will change slightly by the day of the presentation. it’s important to take another study the parameters to create sure that none of the changes will dramatically affect your presentation. Review the parameters and address any concerns or problems. Have there been any changes within the program or agenda? Has your presentation been moved in the program? Will someone be introducing you? Who is that person, and does he or she need anything from you before your introduction?

Will someone be asking audience members to show off their cell phones and pagers? you must request this if possible.

Another parameter that always changes the day of the presentation is the size of the audience, which is able to have plenty to try and do with how you choose to deal with the formality and elegance of your presentation.

For small groups of 5 to 10, the presentation will often be informal.

You can remain seated and work to develop a more personal relation with your audience members. For an audience containing between 10 and 30 individuals, it’s still possible to develop relationships, but the design will probably be more formal. With an audience of this size, visual presentation aids become useful. When the audience size is closer to 100, good presentation aids will become even more useful. An audience of this size will increase formality further and make it harder to develop personal relationships. When the audience size surpasses 100, your presentation are going to be more of a performance. it’s best to use a microphone and check out to exaggerate facial gestures and arm movements.

Changes and difficulties at the placement of your presentation can be a true headache. Give yourself a minimum of a pair of hours before the presentation to double-check the audio-video resources available at the location. Are they working? Are you continue to able to connect your laptop computer to the audio-video system? does one have to load your presentation program onto an on-site computer? Do all of your computer based audiovisuals run smoothly with the projector? Will you be using a remote to advance your slides? Who will facilitate your with the audiovideo equipment if there are any problems? additionally, see exactly where you’ll be presenting within the room. Where must you be prior to your presentation? Will a glass of water be available? Where are the restrooms?

Speaker’s Podium and Its Use. A podium has always been a central fixture of lecture halls and auditoriums. For the foremost part, if there is a podium within the room a presenter will often be drawn thereto sort of a magnet. this is often not always for the most effective. Although a podium can provide a sense of authority and a convenient place to rest one’s water glass, it also can function a barrier and hinder one’s efforts to attach with an audience. If a podium is present and there’s a convener for the meeting, ask where presenters are expected to deliver their presentations.

If the selection is up to you, give some thought to the dimensions and nature of your audience. With a smaller, less formal group, step faraway from the podium in order that you’ll be able to develop personal and individual relationships with your audience members. With a bigger, more formal audience, a podium can function a method to attenuate fear and help the audience target the presenter.

Speaking Attire. What are you visiting wear for your presentation?

With all the thought you’ve got put into preparing what you will say and the way you’ll say it, it’s possible that this item has been sidelined until the second. the foremost important thing to stay in mind is that your choice of attire shouldn’t detract from the message you’re delivering. Dressing conservatively and neatly will convey the professionalism of your presentation. In the minutes before your presentation ensure to double-check your appearance. And did you remember to show off your cellular phone and pager? generally when planning on what to wear for your presentation, consider these questions and therefore the following list of do’s and don’ts from the manager Communications Group at

Clothing “Do’s”

✔ Always look professional.

✔ Dress for the audience, the circumstance, the company culture, and yourself.

✔ Wear clothes that fit.

✔ ensure your clothes are pressed.

✔ Keep jackets buttoned (formal).

✔ Err on the side of conservative.

✔ Keep your hair neat and trimmed.

✔ No hair in eyes.

✔ For women: simple manicure, conservative makeup.

✔ Mild (or no) fragrances.

✔ Ties should be conservative and reach the center of your belt buckle.

✔ Lace-up shoes (usually black) with a suit.

✔ a conventional starched business shirt, preferably white cotton with a suit.

✔ Shirts with an easy collar and cuffs.

✔ a proper but simple watch.

✔ Hair, usually parted to 1 side, not reaching the highest of your shirt collar.

✔ Over-the-calf socks for men; hosiery should be colour or darker for ladies.

Clothing “Don’ts”

✔ Wear clothes that talk louder than you do.

✔ Undo multiple buttons on your shirt or blouse.

✔ Wear clothing that no longer fits.

✔ Wear wrinkled clothing.

✔ Use fabrics that have a noticeable sheen.

✔ Let hair fall in your face or obscure your eyebrows.

✔ Have a hair style that requires continual adjustment.

✔ Use a fragrance that smells from a distance.

✔ Wear an ID badge when you’re presenting.

✔ Wear busy patterns.

✔ Wear garish ties.

✔ Sport untrimmed facial hair (in some organizations, any facial hair can be career-inhibiting).

✔ Wear shiny tie pins or clips or big belt buckles.

✔ Wear visible jewelry (other than a watch and/or a single simple ring).

✔ Wear distracting lapel pins for men, or dangles, bangles, or anything noisy for women.

✔ Leave top shirt button open with a tie.

✔ Wear short-sleeved dress shirts.

✔ Wear short socks.

✔ Wear loafers with a suit for men, or open-toe or ultrahigh-heel shoes for women.

Other Appearance Considerations. Your audience should be able to see your eyes clearly and easily. If you wear glasses, consider an antiglare coating for the lenses, which makes it easier to see your eyes.

Avoid any tint (unless medically necessary) and avoid heavy frames that can obscure your eyes. Any perfume, cologne, or perfumed grooming product mustn’t be noticeable at normal business proximity.

This means that you simply can exit the elevator and nobody entering should be ready to guess that you simply were there. Also, if you may be during a health care setting, you must not wear anything scented because colognes can aggravate certain medical conditions and allergies.

Importance of Backup Plans and Preplanning

Do not make the error of leaving a vital presentation aid behind at your home or office. Put the materials you’ll need for your presentation during a separate and secure location. Check them carefully the day before and also the morning of your presentation to form sure that nothing is missing or broken. Bring a backup copy of your visual aids in a folder or on a CD just in case something happens to the originals. Are there any handouts you wish to produce to your audience during or after your presentation? If so, confirm that you just have quite enough copies available well earlier of the presentation day. Do you have that index card of what to be mindful of when presenting (such as looking your audience within the eye)?

In order to try and do a last-minute check of the parameters, arrive early.

Knowing that the audio-video equipment and your laptop are working will put your mind at rest and boost your confidence about your presentation.

Take a second to appear over your notes and run through your key words and phrases. additionally, and if it’s appropriate given the size and ritual of your audience, playing host before your presentation can be an honest thanks to begin developing a relationship together with your audience. Greet audience members individually as they arrive, and ask people if they’re comfortable in their seats and might see the screen. Developing a personal relationship along with your audience during this way will also help alleviate a number of your fear.

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