Advertising is paid communication delivered to audiences through different forms of media like television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and billboards. an organization uses advertising to tell, persuade, or remind its target market of its products or services.
Comparative advertising is employed to differentiate a company’s products within the marketplace from other similar products. for instance, McDonald’s and Burger King wont to run comparative advertising, comparing their cooking methods for hamburgers. The “Pepsi Challenge” campaign was another variety of comparative advertising in which consumers were asked to require blind taste tests to determine if they could tell the difference between the products.
Reminder advertising is employed once a product has matured within the marketplace—that is, once a product has been around for a long time.
Credit card companies use lots of reminder advertising, like American Express “Don’t leave home without it” or Visa “It’s everywhere you want to be” campaigns. Coca-Cola uses reminder ads to indicate us how refreshing the beverage is on a hot day, and Budweiser wants to remind the patron to “Make it a Bud night.” Some ads use nostalgia to remind us of what quantity as children we enjoyed a product such as Oreo cookies; and although our taste buds may have matured, we can still enjoy them.
Institutional advertising promotes the corporate, organization, government agency, or an idea or philosophy, but not a selected product. as an example, ads for BASF, one amongst the world’s largest manufacturers of chemicals and chemical-related products, states, “We don’t make lots of the products you purchase. We make lots of the products you buy better.” Another example is that the U.S. Army recruitment commercials, “Be all you’ll be.”
Industry advertising promotes an entire industry and not only 1 company or product. the foremost popular example of this is often the “Got milk?” ad campaigns sponsored by the California Milk Processing Board. Another example is that the “Hanker for a hunk of cheese” campaign that was sponsored by the Wisconsin Dairy Board.
There are advantages and drawbacks to every media type, and when selecting the advertising mediums to use, companies must understand who their target market is and which is that the best method for reaching them. Marketers must be able to divide their budgets among the various media resources so as to stretch them the farthest to reach the foremost customers.
Television. Television advertising is that the leading medium for reaching U.S. audiences. Although a really expensive sort of advertising, television ads reach the most important percentage of the U.S. population at once and might be very appealing because of their visual nature similarly as their sound.
TV ads may be classified into national, local, and cable advertisements.
The type of network chosen will rely upon which audience the marketer is trying to succeed in. If the advertisement is for an area restaurant, the company may value more highly to advertise only on local stations or in local ad space on cable channels or national networks. Companies targeting Hispanics may opt to advertise on a Spanish-language cable station like Telemundo, or advertise during a television program whose viewers is predominately Hispanic.
The time a commercial is shown is additionally a crucial decision that companies must make so as to achieve the target market. Budgetary constraints also will be an element in choosing time slots for advertisements.
Super Bowl ads are extremely expensive, but can be cost-effective for reaching an audience of sports fans.
Print Ads. Advertising in newspapers and magazines is another way of reaching customers with a company’s message. Print ads are effective due to their visual quality and may be run in many alternative types of publications. Marketers selling products or services to consumers may choose national publications like Time magazine or local newspapers like the Chicago Tribune. Businesses trying to sell products or services to other businesses will often advertise in trade publications of the industries they’re trying to achieve. Companies may also target specialized publications; as an example, a new computer product is also advertised in PC World or another specialty technology publication. Print ads have a extended life than electronic media ads and are good for telling a story about the worth of a product or service.
Radio. Although lacking the visual appeal, radio are often a good medium for reaching target consumers. the common radio listener tunes certain three hours daily, and infrequently on a daily basis. When using radio advertisements in your marketing mix, it’s necessary to form sure that the corporate and merchandise or service is clearly identified. As with television, it’s also necessary to search out the proper station for advertising to the target consumer. If your service could be a bar for faculty students, you may favor to advertise within the evenings on a school station or an alternative rock station; if your target market is senior citizens, you may advertise on news stations or a chat show.
Internet. the web has become a crucial electronic medium, and its interactive quality is exclusive. It permits immediacy of purchase and a high level of convenience. It will be personalized and individualized.
The Internet and therefore the World Wide Web are getting essential tools in an integrated marketing plan and effective tools in sustaining customer loyalty and satisfaction.
Direct Mail. Mailing advertisements or promotions on to people’s homes is another commonly used method of reaching consumers.
Direct mail campaigns will be expensive, thanks to printing and postage costs, but these campaigns is effective if the mailings reach the right consumers. Often companies will purchase lists of consumers or collect data themselves to make a list. The people on these lists will then be sent targeted mailings.
Telemarketing. the employment of telemarketing has been greatly affected in the u. s. by the recent implementation of the national “Do Not Call” registry, where ample Americans signed up to have their telephone numbers off from telemarketer lists. Internationally, however, regulations regarding telemarketing vary, and it should still be a awfully effective method of reaching consumers. The downside of telemarketing is that almost all people don’t just like the invasiveness of being called reception, though unfortunately many mass marketers find the danger of offending nonreceptive households is offset by the effective results and benefits from these marketing methods.
Outdoor and “Out of Home.” the bulk of out of doors advertising dollars is spent on billboards. Billboards are a well-liked way of reaching commuters and consumers in an exceedingly single geographic location. Other forms of outdoor advertising (known as “out of home”) include sports stadium ads, bus shelter posters, or signage on buses and taxis.
A very popular way of getting a message across is using celebrity endorsements.
Advertising companies are willing to pay top dollar so as to hire celebrities to represent their brands. From Star Trek actors advertising cheap travel for Priceline.com to Michael Jordan drinking Gatorade while sweating neon colors, celebrities are a part of an advertising message and campaign. Of course, employing a celebrity spokesperson can be a risk, for instance, using O. J. Simpson because the Hertz Rental Car spokesperson.
When choosing a star to endorse products, it’s important to find an appropriate match with the merchandise or service. the link should be believable. it’s also important that the celebrities endorsing the product be credible; they must either have expertise in the field or be trustworthy characters.
Sponsorships. this is often a well-used variety of promotion and advertising that allows the corporate to shop for into a sporting event or activity.
The amount of investment in an exceedingly sponsorship can range from an athletic company supporting a school sports team by providing them with brand-name uniforms so as to push the brand to a corporation sponsoring a university football bowl game like the Tostito’s Fiesta Bowl.
Infomercials. Another trend in advertising is that the infomercial. This is an extended television advertisement and frequently runs at off peak hours or on lower-budget television or cable networks. Infomercials are usually a minimum of a half hour long. a number of the foremost popular items that are sold through infomercials are fitness videos, skin care products, and kitchenware. Often they’re going to feature celebrity endorsements and offer products that can’t be purchased in stores. Their low-budget appearance and late-night showing often characterize infomercials. If you switch on the tv late at nighttime, a former star is using the Thigh Master or many uses for a rotisserie oven may draw you in. Once the patron is convinced to purchase the merchandise, he or she’s going to then be ready to call and order the product over the phonephone, generating a right away response to the infomercial.